Anatomy of the ear: the ear is divided into three main parts: the external ear [or outer ear], the middle ear and the inner ear.
Anvil - see incus.
Auditory ossicles - The auditory ossicles are malleus (or hammer), incus and staphes
Cochlea - The cochlea is organ of hearing. It's a spiral tube shaped like a snail shell. It's locade within temporal bone; forming part of the inner ear. The cochlea is filled with fluid (endolinpha) and is connected with the middle ear by two windows, the oval window (closed by the stapes) and the round window, closed by a membrane. Inside it is the organ of Corti, a structure of highly specialized hair cells: the mechanoreceptors. Sound vibrations are mechanical energy and are transduced into electrical energy by hair cells. The organ of Corti has the role to transform sound vibrations into a nerve impulse. Nerve impulses through the auditory nerve (eight cranial nerve) to the brain.
Eardrum - The eardrum or tympanic membrane is a thin membrane that closes the external ear canal. It separates the outer ear (or external ear) from the middle ear. Adhering to the tympanic membrane is the hammer. The function of the eardrum is transmitted from the sound to the auditory ossicles.
Eardrum or tympanic membrane
Structures of the middle ear
Endolinphatic Hydrops - is an important dosorder of the vestibular system. Endolinphatic hydrops consist of abnormal circulation of the inner era fluids. This alteration is the pathogenic mechanism of Ménière's disease.
Endolinphatic Sac - The vestibule, in its medial wall, presents the vestibular aqueduct orifice. The vestibular aqueduct contains the ductus endolymphaticus that reaches the outside of the temporal bone. In a split dura mater it contains the endolymphatic sac.
External Auditory Canal - see External Auditory (or Acoustic) Meatus
External Auditory (or Acoustic) Meatus - (EAM) - The external auditory meatus is a tube that runs between the outer ear (concha auris) and middle ear.
External Ear (or Outer Ear) - The outer ear is the part of the ear formed by the auricle (or pinna), the external auditory meatus and eardrum.
Hammer - see Malleus
Labirinth - Inside the temporal bone is excavated the labirinth. This is the bony labirinth (or osseus labirinth). The membranous labirinth runs inside of the bony labirinth. We recognize three anatomical structures: cochela, vestibule of the ear and semicircular canals
Incus - The incus is a small bone situated in the middle ear
Inner Ear - The inner ear contains the cochlea and the vestibular system.
Malleus or hammer - The malleus is a small bone situated in the middle ear
Mastoid antrum or tympanic antrum - it is locaded in the epitympanic recess and comminicating posteriorly whith the mastoid cells.
Middle ear - The middle ear is the portion of the ear between the tympanic membrane and the inner ear. (See drawings above.) It contains three auditory ossicles: malleus, incus and stapes. The middle ear has two windows on the medial wall: oval window and round window.
Otoconium - see otolith.
Otolith - other names: statolith, statoconium and otoconium. Otolith organs are located in the saccule and utricle.
Saccule - Is the smaller of the two vestibular sacs.
Semicircular canal - Are three canal of labirinth. Horizontal or lateral. Superior or anterior. Posterior or inferior.
Stapes - The stapes is the third ossicle in the middle ear. It presents a head, two crus (anterior and posterior crus) and a base. The head of the stapes is articulated with the incus. The base closes the oval window.
Statoconium - see otolith.
Statolith - see otolith.
Stirrup - stapes
Tympanic membrane - See eardrum.
Utricle or utriculus - Is larger than the saccule.
Vestibular aqueduct - The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal that goes from the medial faccial the vestibule outside the temporal bone. An enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct over 2 mm, visible with CT, is indicative for a enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by unilateral hearing loss and often is observed in children.
Vestibular system - The vestibular system includes the semicircular canals, the saccule, the utricle, the duct and the endolymphatic sac. The vestibular system is responsible for maintaining balance.