NOTA! Questo sito utilizza i cookie e tecnologie simili.

Se non si modificano le impostazioni del browser, l'utente accetta. Per saperne di piu'


Carlo Govoni MD

Otorhinolaryngologist head and neck surgeon  Master in vestibology

Phone  (+39) 3358040811  from Monday to Friday from 10,30 to 12,00   NO SMS   

He visits adults and children by appointment only at private clinic

Abbreviations and acronyms in otorhinolaryngology.

5-FU - 5-Fluorouracil


AA - Arytenoid Aduction

AAA – Acute Attack of Anxiety or panic attack.   Anxiety is the natural response to danger.

AAC - Antigen Antibody Complex.   AAC is the most important immune reaction.

Ab - antibody 

ABG  - Air-Bone gaps. Difference between hearing thresholds by air and bone conduction
ABG  - Arterial Blood Gases [or Gas]. This test mesaures the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide and pH (or acidity) in the arterial blood.  

ABGPTA  - Air-Bone Gaps Pure Tone Average. Average of the differences between hearing threshold for air and bone conduction at frequencies of 0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

ABR - Auditory Brainstem Response

a.c. - alternate current.

AC - Air Conduction 

ACC - Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

ACPTA  - Air Conduction Pure Tone Average. Average of air conductionat frequencies of0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

ACS  - American Cancer Society

ACTH - Adreno Corticotropic Hormone

a.d. - (latin: auris dextra) - Right ear

ADCA - Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

AE  - Adverse Event

AFP  - Alpha Feto Protein

Ag- antigen 

AGN – Acute Glomerulo-Nephritis  

AHA - American Heart Association

AHI - Apnea Hypopnea Index

AHL - Asymmetrical Hearing Loss

AI - Apnea Index

AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

AIED - Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

AJA - American Journal of Audiology 

a.l. - (latin: auris laeva) - Left ear

ALD - Assisitive Listening Device

AMA  - American Medical Association

AMI– Acute Myocardial Infarction 

ANA- Anti-Nuclear Antibody 

ANCA - ANCAs - Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

AOM - Acute Otits Media

AP– Action Potential 

aPTT -  Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time - Normal values 28 - 40 sec.

AR - Allergic Rhinitis

ARCA - Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

ARDS– Adult Respiratoy Distress Syndrome 

a.s. - (latin: auris sinistra) - Left ear

ASLO– Anti-Streptolysin O 

ASNHL - Asymmetrical sensorineural Hearing Loss

ASO- Anti-Streptolysin O 

ASR - Age Standardised Rate

ASSR - Auditory Steady-State Response 

ATH - Absolute Thresold of Hearing
ATH - Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy 

a.u. - (latin: auris utraque) - Both ears

AVPU scaleA= Alert.V= Verbal.P= Painful.U= Unresponsive.  Expresses the level of consciousness.


BAEP- Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
BAER  - Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response 

BAHA- Bone Anchored Hearing Aid. Read article on the Bone Anchored Hearing Aid.

BC- Bone Conduction 
BC - Brain Cancer 

BCC - Basal Cell Crcinoma

BCPTA  - Bone Conduction Pure Tone Average. Average of bone conductionat frequencies of0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

BERA- Brainstem Electric Response Audiometry  

BK- Koch’s bacillus or mycobatterium tuberculosis.

BLND - Bilateral Linph Node Dissection

BMI - Body Mass Index

BMJ - British Medica Journal

BMT - Bilateral Myringotomy and Tubes

BOA - Behavioral Observaton Audiometry

BOT - Base of Toungue

BP- Blood Pressure   Also B/P

BPPV - Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. BPPV is the most common cause of positional vertigo.

BSA - Body Surface Area

BSC - Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma

BSER- BrainStem Evoked Response. 

BT - Brain Tumor

BTE- Behind-the-ear.

BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen

BX - Biopsy



C Cancer (see also CA and K)

C1 - C7 Cervical Vertebrae - C7 is seventh cervical vertebra.

Ca- Calcium
- Cancer (see also C and K)

CA 125- Cancer Antigens 125

CAD- Contact Allergic Dermatitis

CAP - Compound Action Potential

CBM - Cellular Blue Nevi 

CBT - Childhood Brain Tumor
CBT  - Cognitive Behavioral (or Behavior) Therapy.  

CCHS  - Congenital central Hypoventilation Syndrome

CDC - Center for Disease Control 

CDP  - Computerized Dinamic Posturography. Other name Test of Balance (TOB).

cGy - Centigray.  Unit of abdsorbed radiation dose equal to one hundredth of a Gray - Also 1 Rad.

Chemo - Chemoterapy

CHL - Conductive Hearing Loss

CI - Cochlear Implant

CIC- acoustic prosthesis Completely-in-the-canal. 

CIN- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 

CIS - Carcinoma In Situ - or Cancer in Situ.

CLD- In pharmacology: Certain Lethal Dose


CLL– Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia.

cM– Centimogran. Is a unit for meausring genetic linkage.
CM - Cutaneous Melanoma 


CMV– Cytomegalovirus

CNAP - Compound Nerve Action Potential

CNR - Closed Nasal Reduction


CNS- Central Nervous System 

C/O - Care Of

COG  - Center of Gravity


COM - Chronic Otitis Media


COME - Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion


CP – Central Palsy.

CP  - Computerized Posturography. 


CPA - Cerebellopontine Angle. 


CPAP (or C-PAP) - Continous Positive Airway Pressure

CPM - Ciclophosphamide

Creat - Creatinine

CROS - Contralateral Routing Of Signal

CRP - C-Reactive Protein 

CRS - Chronic Rhinosinusitis

CRT - Cochlear Response Telemetry

Cryo - Cryotherapy or Cryosurgery

CSF – Cerebro Spinal Fluid 


CSOM - Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

CST - Connected Speech Test

CT  - Computerized Tomography. Other name CAT - Computerized Axial Tomography [CT is preferred].
CT  - Chemo Therapy  (or ct)

CVA - Cerebrovascular Accident

CVC - Central Venous Catheter

CVP - Central Venous Pressure

CWD - Canal Wall Down

CXR – Chest X Ray



daPa - deca Pascal 

dB - Decibel

dB SPL - Decibel Sound Pressure Level 

DCR - Dacryocystorhinostomy. Dacryocystorhinostomy is a surgical technique to restore the flow of tears into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.

DDx - Differential Diagnosis 

DH - Day Hospital

DIC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 

DIHS  - Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

DL - Direct Laryngoscopy

dilut. - (latin: dilutus ) diluted

dim - (latin: dimidius ) half

DIMS - Disorders of initiating and Maintaining Sleep 

DIT – Dihydro-Tyrosine 

DIVC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy 

DN - Dibucaine Number 

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid  
DNA - Did Not Attend 

DOB - Date of Birth 

DRG  - Diagnosis Related Group 

DS - Standard Deviation
DS - Day Surgery

DTI - [neuroscience]  Diffusion Tensor Imaging

DU  - Diagnosis Undetermined
DU  - Dudenal Ulcer

Dx  - Diagnosis 


EAC - External Auditory Canal

EAM - External Auditory Meatus or External Acoustic Meatus.

EBNA - Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 

EBUS - Endobronchial Ultrasound.

EBV - Epstein-Barr Virus. It is the cause of infectious mononucleosis. Epstein-Barr virus has been implicated in several disease: Hodking's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, multiple sclerosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBV VCA - Epstein-Barr Virus viral-capsid antigen

EH - Endolymphatic Hydrops. This is a disorder of the vestibular system.

EJC - European Journal of Cancer

ELS - Endolinphatic Shunt

ELST - Endolinphatic Sac Tumor 

EMDR - Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

ENS  - Empty Nose Syndrome. 

ENT - Ear-Nose-Throat. See also "ORL: cosa significa?"

ERA - Electrical Response Audiometry 

ERO - Evoked Response Olfactometry 

ESS - Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. See also videoendoscopy sinus surgery.

ETD - Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

ETF  - Eustachian Tube Function. 

ETS - Environmental Tobacco Smoke 

ETT - Endotracheal Tube

EUA - Exam Under Anesthesia

EVA - Enlarged Vestibular Acqueduct

ex aq - (latin: ex aqua) - In water


FAO  - Far Advanced Otosclerosis

FB - Foreing Body

FEES - Flexible [or Fiberoptic] Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing

FESS - Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. 

FFF - Fibula Free Flap

FFL - Flexible Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy

FFT  - Fast Fourier Transform

F/H - Family History

FIT - Food Intolerance Test.  

FKT - PhysioKinesiTherapy

FMEO - Fungal Malignant External Otitis

fMRI - Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

FMT - Floating Mass Transducer. It 'a component of the Vibrant Soundbridge, a semi-implantable prosthesis.

FMTE - Full Mouth Tooth Extraction

FNA - Fine Needle Aspiration

FNAB - Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy.  See also biopsy.

FOM - Floor Of Mouth

FSF - Frontal Sinus Fracture

FT3 - Free Triijodothyronine

FT4 - Free Thyroxine

FTC - Federal Trade Commission (USA)

FU  - Follow Up

Fx - Fracture

telephonic number carlo govoni ent surgeon



GCS - Glasgow Coma Scale

GERD - Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

GPR  - Good Partial Remission

Gy - Gray. Gray is the standard unit of absorbed inonizing-radiation dose.  See also cGy - centigray.


HA - Hearing Aids
HA - Headache. In italian language cefalea

HAE - Hearing Aid Evaluation

H2S - Idrogen sulphide

Hb - Haemoglobin concentration

HBO (or hbo) - Hyperbaric Oxigen

HBV -  Hepatitis B Virus 

HCP - Human Connectome Project

HCV - Hepatitis C Virus 

HD  - High Dose

H&N  - Head and Neck.

HHIE - Hearing Handicap Inventary for the Ealdery. 

HHT - Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

HL - Hearing Loss

HNC - Head and Neck Cancer

HNS - Head and Neck Surgery

HNSCCs - Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

HP - Hearing Preservation
HP - Hypopharinx 

HPV - Human Papilloma Virus

HR  - High Risk 

HST - Head Shaking Test.

HSV - Herpes Simplex Virus

HTN - Hypertension

Hx  - Medical History

Hz - Hertz - Hertz is the unit of frequency. The unit is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. 

HZV - Herpes Zoster Virus


I&D - Incision and Drainage

IAC - Internal Auditory Canal

IC  - Infiltrating Carcinoma
 - Infusion Chemotherapy

ICA  - Internal Carotid Arthery  

ICF - Intercellular Fluid

ICHD-3  - International Classification of Headaches Disorders, 3td Edition

ICNIRP - International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 

ICP - Intracranial Pressure

If - Intermittent fasting. or  If diet. 

IFN  -  Interferon

IFOS  -  International Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societes. It was founded during the Tokyo World Congress of Otolarygology in 1965.

Igf-1  - Insulin-like growth factor. 

IGR - Institute Gustave Roussy - France. See

IHS - International Headache Society

IIC - Invisible in canal hearing aids 

IL - Interleukin

IM - Intramuscolar

IMRT - Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

INR - International Normalized Ratio

ISSNHL - Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. See Sudden Deafness

ITE - In-the-ear. 

IV  - Intravenous  or  Into a Vein


JLO  - The Journal of Laryngology & Otology

JNA - Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

JNS  - Journal of Neurosurgery. Official Journal of the aans since 1944.


K - Carcinoma

KHz - Kilohertz, or 1000 Hz. 


LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

LAUP - Laser Assisted Uvolopalatopharyngoplasty

LB  -  Large Base.

LDL - Loudness Disconfort Level

LEMG - Laryngeal Electromyography

LES - Lower Esophageal Sphincter

LF - Laser Fulguration

LMA - Laryngeal Mask Airway

LMM  - Lentigo Maligna Melanoma
LMP - Low Malignant Potential 

LN - Lymph Node (see also LYM)

LND - Lymph Node Dissection

LP - Lumbar Puncture

LPR - Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

LTB (or Ltb) - Laryngotracheobronchitis

LTR - Laryngotracheal Reconstruction

LYM -  Lymph node (see also LN)


MAD - Mandibular Advanced Deviced

MALT - Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue

MAR - Bone Marrow

MBS - Modified Barium Swallow

MCF - Middle Cranial Fossa

MD- Ménière's Disease 
MD - Moderately Differentiated

MDR - Multi Drug Resistant

MED - Medial

MEE - Middle Ear Effusion
MEE - Middle Ear Exploration 

MEN - Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

MEO - Malignant External Otitis

METS  (or Mets) - Metastases (see also MTS)

MI - Myocardial Infarction

MID - Maximal Interincisal Distance

MIO - Minimum Identifiable Odour

MML  - Minimum Masking Level. MML is expressed in dB sensation level (SL). 

MMF - Maxillomandibular Fixation

MPL - Myringoplasty.

MRI  - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRND - Modified Radical Neck Dissection

MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

MS - Multiple Sclerosis

MSA - Multi System Atrophy

MSDL - Microsuspension Direct Laryngoscopy

MSL - Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis

MSLT - Multiple Sleep Latency Test

MST - Maximal Stimulation Test

MTC - Medullary Thyroid Cancer

MTS or Mts - Metastases

MTX - Methotrexate

MxT - Myringotomy and Tubes


NA - Acoustic Neuroma 

NAFLD - Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

NARES - NonAllergic Rhinitis with Eosinophila. 

NASH - Non Alcoholic Steato-Hepatitis

NAW - Nasoantral Window

NBHS - Newborn Hearing Screen

NCI - National Cancer Institute. See also

ND - Neck Dissection

NDA - New Drug Application

NDPH - New Daily Persistent Headache 

NET - Nerve Excitability Test

NF (or nf) - Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis is an important autosomal dominant disorder.

NHL - Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

NHT - Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy

NIHL - Noise Induced Hearing Loss

NK - Natural Killer

NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

NMSC - Non Melanoma Skin Cancer

NOE - Naso-Orbito-Ethmoid

NOS - Not Otherwise Specified

NP - Nasopharynx

NPC  - Naso Pharyngeal Carcinoma

NRT - Neural Response Telemetry

NSAID - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

NSI - Nasal Saline Irrigation

NSR - No Sign of Recurrence
NSR - Not-Significant Result 
NSR - Normal Sinus Rhythm

NV o N/V - Nausea and Vomit


O - Blood group O

OAE - Oto Acoustic Emissions

OC - Oral Cavity

OCR - Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

OD  - Over Dose

OE - Otitis Externa

OHNS  - Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeon 

OKC - Odontogenic Keratocysts

OKN - Optokinetic Nystagmus

OM - Otitis Media

OM - Odourized Markers 

OMC - Osteomeatal Complex

OME - otitis media with effusion. 

OMS - see WHO 

ONB  - Olfactory Neuro Blastoma

OP - Oropharynx
OP - Out Patient  

OPMS - Oropharyngeal Motility Study

OR - Operating Room 

ORIF - Open Reduction Internal Fixation

ORL -  Otolaryngology or OtoRhinoLaryngology

ORL-HNS - OtoRhinoLaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

OSA - Obstructive Sleep Apnea

OSAS - Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 

OSCC - Oropharingeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

OSR - Open SeptoRhinoplasty

OTOHNS - Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

OW - Oval Window


p-ANCA - perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

PAP - Positive Airway Pressure

PD - Progressive Disease

PDR - Physician's Desk Reference

PDT (or pdt) - Photodynamic Therapy

PEG - Percutaneos Endoscopy Gastrostomy

PET   - Positron Emission Tomography 
PET - Pressure Equalizing Tube 

PH  (or Ph) - Past History 

PICA  - Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery. Is the most important branch of the vertebral artery.

PM - Pacemaker

PNS  - Peripheral Nervous System

PORP - Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis

PPI - Proton Pump Inhibitor.

PR - Partial Remission
PR - Partial Responce 

PRIST - Paper Radioimmunosorbent Test 

PRITS - Partial Resection Of Inferior Turbinates

PSCT - Palliative Supportive Care Team

PSG - Polisomnogram

PSS - Performance Status Scale

PT - Prothrombin Time

PTT -  Partial Thromboplastin Time

PTA - Peritonsillar Abscess
PTA - Pure Tone Audiometry
PTA  - Pure Tone Average.

PTH - Parathyroid Hormone

PTS  - Permanent Threshold Shift  


QALY - Quality Adjusted Life Year

q. d. - (latin: quaque die) - Every day

QOL  - Quality Of Life



RADPLAT - Radiation plus Cisplatin

RAST - Radioallergosorbent Test

RBC - Red Blood Cell

RDI - Respiratory Disordes Index (or Respiratory Disturbance Index)

RF - Radiofrequency

RFA - Radiofrequency Ablation

RFFF - Radial Forearm Free Flap

RFITT  - Radio Frequency Induced Thermotherapy. See also CelonLab ENT.

RFVTR - Radio Frequency Volumetric Tissue Reduction

RI - Residual Inhibition

RIT - Radio Immuno Therapy

RMF - Resonance Magnetic Functional  (another acronym: fMRI)

RMN - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

RMT - Retromolar Trigone

RNA - Ribonucleic Acid

RND - Radical Neck Dissection

ROT - Reality Orentation Therapy

RRP - Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

RS - [neuroscience]  Resting State

RT - Radio Therapy

RW - Round Window

Rx  - Prescription

RXT  - Radiation X-ray Therapy


SAE - Serius Adverse Event

SC - Subcutaneus

SCC - Short Course Chemotherapy
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Strategic Cell Controller 

SCM - Sternocleidomastoid

SDT - Speech Discrimination Threshold

SEH - Secondary Endolynphatic Hydrops

SET - Skin Endpoint Titration

SG or SGC - Salivar Gland Carcinoma

SGOT - Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase

SGPT - Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase

SGS - Subglottic Stenosis

SH - Social History

SIDS  - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 

SL - Sensation Level. 

SLE - System Lupus Erythematosus

SMAS - Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System

SMG (or smg) - SubMandibular Gland

SNHL  - Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

SOB - Short Of Breath

SPA - Subperiosteal Abscess

SPF - Sun Protection Factor. See also Fattore di Protezione Solare

SRT  -  Speech Reception Threshold

SSD - Single Sided Deafness 

SSNHL - Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

STSG - Split Thickness Skin Graft

SVW  - Vidal - Wright syndrome



T&A  (or  T+A)  - Tonsllectomy and Adenoidectomy
TACs - Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
TBI - Total Body Irradiation
TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury
TBNA - Transbronchial Needle Aspiration
TC - Thyroid Cancer
TCA - Trichloroacetic acid
TCB - Thrombocytopenia
TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine.
TEE -   TransEsophageal Echo.
TENS - Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator. 
TEOAE - Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions 
TEP - Tracheoesophageal Puncture
TES - Transoral Endoscopic Surgery

TGF - Tumor Growth Factor

THI - Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (Newman et al., 1996). See also article Tinnitus Retrainig Therapy 

THoSC - Tinnitus Holistic Simplified Classification

Tinnitus: causes and treatment at Columbus Clinic Center in Milan

TI - Tumor Inducing

TIA - Transient Ischaemic Attack 

TL - Total Laryngectomy
TL  (or TLA)- Translabyrintine Approach 
TLMS - Transoral Laser Microsurgery
TM - Tympanic Membrane
TM - Tympanomastoidectomy
TMD  - Temporomandibular joint disorders
TMS - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
TNM - Tumor - Nodes - Metastasis. 
TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TOB  -Test Of Balance. See Computerized Dinamic Posturography
TORP - Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis
TORS - Transoral Robotic Surgery
TPL - Tympanoplasty
TPL CWD - Tympanoplasty Canal-Wall Down
TPL CWU - Tympanoplasty Canal-Wall Up
TPN - Total Parenteral Nutrition

TRT - Tinnitus Retrainig Therapy -   See also Tinnitus treatment at the Columbus Clinic Center in Milan

TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

TT - Total Tyroidectomy

TTH  - Tension-type Headaches

TTND - Time To Non-detectable

TTS - Temporary Threshold Shift 

TV - Tumor Volume

TVC - True Vocal Cord

TZ - Transition Zone



UARS  - Upper Airways Resistence Syndrome

UBT - Urea Breath Test

UES - Upper Esophageal Sphincter

UHL  - Unilateral Hearing Loss

ULN - Upper Limits of Normal

UPPP - Uvulo Palato Pharingo Plasty

UPF - Ultraviolet Protection Factor - Fattore di protezione dai raggi ultravioletti

URI  or  URTI  - Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

U.S.P. - United States Pharmacopoeia

UVH - Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction.

UVR - Ultra Violet Radiation


VBI - Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency

VC - Vocal Cords

VII - Facial Nerve. The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve.

VHL - von Hippel Lindau. See Syndrome von Hippel Lindau

VMA - Vanillyl Mandelic Acid

VOR - Vestibulo Ocular Reflex.  

VORP - Vibrating Ossicular Prosthesis. This is the implantable component of the Vibrant Soundbridge System.

VRA - Visual Response Audiometry

VS - Vestibular Schwannoma

VSR -  Vestibulo Spinal Reflex.

VZV - Varicella Zoster Virus


WD - Well Differentiated

WHO - World Health Organization 

WM - Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

WTHD - Wish To Hasten Death


XR - X-Ray
XR  - Estremely Rare 

XRT - X-Ray Therapy. Radiotherapy


YAG Lasers - Lasers based on YAG. YAG = Yttrium Aluminium Garnet.

YOB - Year Of Birth


ZMC - Zygomaticomaxillary Complex



where carlo govoni expert otorhinolaryngologist italy tinnitus
In all centers where I carry out medical examinations
it is possible to pay in euros by cash or by debit card.



See also:
- Hesperia Hospital, Modena 

- Ambulatory Care and Clinic Center "Columbus", 48, Buonarroti street, Milan 



esame-corde-vocali-bambinoI bambini, soprattutto i maschi, vanno incontro ad abbassamenti della voce e non sempre pediatri e genitori si rendono conto che questo è un problema specialistico. Il medico specialista più competente ad affrontare problemi nella emissione della voce è l'otorinolaringoiatra. L'abbassamento di voce o qualsiasi altra alterazione vocale prende il nome di disfonia. La causa più frequente di disfonia nei soggetti in età...
Letto da 10557 visitatori
otorino-visita-otorinolaringoiatricaLa visita otorinolaringoiatrica - visita ORL - è una visita medica specialistica che valuta il distretto testa-collo con l'eccezione dei denti, degli occhi e del cervello. Appartengono all'otorinolaringoiatria anche lo studio di quattro funzioni sensoriali importanti: udito, equilibrio, olfatto e gusto. Le malattie di cui si occupa un otorinolaringoiatra sono numerose. Si ritiene che ogni persona che gode di buona salute dovrebbe affrontare...
Letto da 32928 visitatori
chirurgia-otorinolaringoiatricaL'otorinolaringoiatria è principalmente una branca chirurgica e gli interventi effettuabili sul distretto testa-collo sono molto diversi tra loro.  Ci sono molte parti del distretto testa collo (cavo orale e laringe) dove a causa degli spiccati riflessi del paziente non è possibile intervenire in anestesia locale. Anche se alcuni interventi sono di breve durata è indispensabile la narcosi (anestesia generale),...
Letto da 30939 visitatori
visita-otorinolaringoiatrica-pediatricaLa maggior parte dei bambini possono soffrire di parecchie malattie, quelle più frequenti sono le patologie dell'orecchio, del naso e della gola. La visita medica serve per affrontare i problemi clinici. La visita otorinolaringoiatrica eseguita per un bambino è molto simile a quella dell'adulto. Per certi aspetti è più semplice perchè si tratta di una visita ridotta alle manovre essenziali. L'importante è...
Letto da 18428 visitatori
crenoterapiaLe cure inalatorie sono trattamenti benefici dove l'acqua termale per effetto di apposite apparecchiature viene frammentata e nebulizzata per trasformarsi in un efficace medicamento naturale specifico per le vie respiratorie superiori. Le principali cure di carattere otorinolaringoiatrico sono indicate per le malattie rino-sinusali e anche per alcune forme di otite.  Le più importanti terapie termali nel distretto orecchio naso e gola...
Letto da 16575 visitatori
esame-audiometrico-audiologiaLe prove audiometriche (o esame dell'udito) sono numerose e sono fondamentali per lo studio delle malattie otologiche e di molte malattie del labirinto. Raramente consentono di arrivare ad una diagnosi, ma sono essenziali per arrivare ad una diagnosi di sede, cioè per comprendere in quale parte dell'orecchio è presente la malattia. L’udito è un organo di senso fondamentale nella vita di relazione.  Ricordo la...
Letto da 67421 visitatori
chirurgia-ambulatorialeInterventi chirurgici ambulatoriali sono quelli che si eseguono in anestesia locale sulle persone collaboranti e in buone condizioni di salute. Le malattie che si possono curare con questi trattamenti sono numerose. Non si deve pensare che gli interventi in anestesia locale siano meno importanti degli interventi che si eseguono col paziente completamente addormentato. Si ricorda che una semplice biopsia, cioè...
Letto da 28815 visitatori
biopsia-prelievoLa biopsia o prelievo bioptico è una tecnica semplice che viene utilizzata sia in ambulatorio che in corso d'intervento. Le finalità sono diverse. Biopsia ambulatoriale.Lo scopo della biopsia ambulatoriale è quello di togliere un pezzetto di tessuto e farlo analizzare allo scopo di capire la natura della malattia. Nell'ambito della testa e del collo le biopsie ambulatoriali si eseguono su ogni parte della pelle della testa...
Letto da 71671 visitatori
chirurgia-oncologicaSi espongono le caratteristiche generali della chirurgia dei tumori maligni o chirurgia oncologica, ovviamente limitata ai tumori di competenza otorinolaringoiatrica.I pazienti affetti da tumore maligno sono sempre pazienti molto complessi e richiedono attenzioni particolari, sia per gli aspetti psicologici e sia per le difficoltà tecniche. Il vero problema è che la patologia neoplastica spesso non si risolve con il solo intervento...
Letto da 18656 visitatori
JSN Epic template designed by