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Carlo Govoni MD

Otorhinolaryngologist head and neck surgeon  Master in vestibology

Phone  (+39) 3358040811     NO SMS   

He visits adults and children by appointment only at private clinic

Abbreviations and acronyms in otorhinolaryngology.

5-FU - 5-Fluorouracil


AA - Arytenoid Aduction

AAA – Acute Attack of Anxiety or panic attack.   Anxiety is the natural response to danger.

AAC - Antigen Antibody Complex.   AAC is the most important immune reaction.

Ab - antibody 

ABG  - Air-Bone gaps. Difference between hearing thresholds by air and bone conduction
ABG  - Arterial Blood Gases [or Gas]. This test mesaures the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide and pH (or acidity) in the arterial blood.  

ABGPTA  - Air-Bone Gaps Pure Tone Average. Average of the differences between hearing threshold for air and bone conduction at frequencies of 0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

ABR - Auditory Brainstem Response

a.c. - alternate current.

AC - Air Conduction 

ACC - Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

ACPTA  - Air Conduction Pure Tone Average. Average of air conductionat frequencies of0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

ACS  - American Cancer Society

ACTH - Adreno Corticotropic Hormone

a.d. - (latin: auris dextra) - Right ear

ADCA - Autosomal Dominant Cerebellar Ataxia

AE  - Adverse Event

AFP  - Alpha Feto Protein

Ag- antigen 

AGN – Acute Glomerulo-Nephritis  

AHA - American Heart Association

AHI - Apnea Hypopnea Index

AHL - Asymmetrical Hearing Loss

AI - Apnea Index

AIDS- Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

AIED - Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

AJA - American Journal of Audiology 

a.l. - (latin: auris laeva) - Left ear

ALD - Assisitive Listening Device

AMA  - American Medical Association

AMI– Acute Myocardial Infarction 

ANA- Anti-Nuclear Antibody 

ANCA - ANCAs - Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

AOM - Acute Otits Media

AP– Action Potential 

aPTT -  Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time - Normal values 28 - 40 sec.

AR - Allergic Rhinitis

ARCA - Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia

ARDS– Adult Respiratoy Distress Syndrome 

a.s. - (latin: auris sinistra) - Left ear

ASLO– Anti-Streptolysin O 

ASNHL - Asymmetrical sensorineural Hearing Loss

ASO- Anti-Streptolysin O 

ASR - Age Standardised Rate

ASSR - Auditory Steady-State Response 

ATH - Absolute Thresold of Hearing
ATH - Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy 

a.u. - (latin: auris utraque) - Both ears

AVPU scaleA= Alert.V= Verbal.P= Painful.U= Unresponsive.  Expresses the level of consciousness.


BAEP- Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
BAER  - Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response 

BAHA- Bone Anchored Hearing Aid. Read article on the Bone Anchored Hearing Aid.

BC- Bone Conduction 
BC - Brain Cancer 

BCC - Basal Cell Crcinoma

BCPTA  - Bone Conduction Pure Tone Average. Average of bone conductionat frequencies of0.5 - 1,0 - 2,0 - 4,0 KHz.

BERA- Brainstem Electric Response Audiometry  

BK- Koch’s bacillus or mycobatterium tuberculosis.

BLND - Bilateral Linph Node Dissection

BMI - Body Mass Index

BMJ - British Medica Journal

BMT - Bilateral Myringotomy and Tubes

BOA - Behavioral Observaton Audiometry

BOT - Base of Toungue

BP- Blood Pressure   Also B/P

BPPV - Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. BPPV is the most common cause of positional vertigo.

BSA - Body Surface Area

BSC - Basaloid Squamous Carcinoma

BSER- BrainStem Evoked Response. 

BT - Brain Tumor

BTE- Behind-the-ear.

BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen

BX - Biopsy



C Cancer (see also CA and K)

C1 - C7 Cervical Vertebrae - C7 is seventh cervical vertebra.

Ca- Calcium
- Cancer (see also C and K)

CA 125- Cancer Antigens 125

CAD- Contact Allergic Dermatitis

CAP - Compound Action Potential

CBM - Cellular Blue Nevi 

CBT - Childhood Brain Tumor
CBT  - Cognitive Behavioral (or Behavior) Therapy.  

CCHS  - Congenital central Hypoventilation Syndrome

CDC - Center for Disease Control 

CDP  - Computerized Dinamic Posturography. Other name Test of Balance (TOB).

cGy - Centigray.  Unit of abdsorbed radiation dose equal to one hundredth of a Gray - Also 1 Rad.

Chemo - Chemoterapy

CHL - Conductive Hearing Loss

CI - Cochlear Implant

CIC- acoustic prosthesis Completely-in-the-canal. 

CIN- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 

CIS - Carcinoma In Situ - or Cancer in Situ.

CLD- In pharmacology: Certain Lethal Dose


CLL– Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia.

cM– Centimogran. Is a unit for meausring genetic linkage.
CM - Cutaneous Melanoma 


CMV– Cytomegalovirus

CNAP - Compound Nerve Action Potential

CNR - Closed Nasal Reduction


CNS- Central Nervous System 

C/O - Care Of

COG  - Center of Gravity


COM - Chronic Otitis Media


COME - Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion


CP – Central Palsy.

CP  - Computerized Posturography. 


CPA - Cerebellopontine Angle. 


CPAP (or C-PAP) - Continous Positive Airway Pressure

CPM - Ciclophosphamide

Creat - Creatinine

CROS - Contralateral Routing Of Signal

CRP - C-Reactive Protein 

CRS - Chronic Rhinosinusitis

CRT - Cochlear Response Telemetry

Cryo - Cryotherapy or Cryosurgery

CSF – Cerebro Spinal Fluid 


CSOM - Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

CST - Connected Speech Test

CT  - Computerized Tomography. Other name CAT - Computerized Axial Tomography [CT is preferred].
CT  - Chemo Therapy  (or ct)

CVA - Cerebrovascular Accident

CVC - Central Venous Catheter

CVP - Central Venous Pressure

CWD - Canal Wall Down

CXR – Chest X Ray



daPa - deca Pascal 

dB - Decibel

dB SPL - Decibel Sound Pressure Level 

DCR - Dacryocystorhinostomy. Dacryocystorhinostomy is a surgical technique to restore the flow of tears into the nose when the nasolacrimal duct does not function.

DDx - Differential Diagnosis 

DH - Day Hospital

DIC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation 

DIHS  - Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

DL - Direct Laryngoscopy

dilut. - (latin: dilutus ) diluted

dim - (latin: dimidius ) half

DIMS - Disorders of initiating and Maintaining Sleep 

DIT – Dihydro-Tyrosine 

DIVC - Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy 

DN - Dibucaine Number 

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid  
DNA - Did Not Attend 

DOB - Date of Birth 

DRG  - Diagnosis Related Group 

DS - Standard Deviation
DS - Day Surgery

DTI - [neuroscience]  Diffusion Tensor Imaging

DU  - Diagnosis Undetermined
DU  - Dudenal Ulcer

Dx  - Diagnosis 


EAC - External Auditory Canal

EAM - External Auditory Meatus or External Acoustic Meatus.

EBNA - Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 

EBUS - Endobronchial Ultrasound.

EBV - Epstein-Barr Virus. It is the cause of infectious mononucleosis. Epstein-Barr virus has been implicated in several disease: Hodking's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, multiple sclerosis and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBV VCA - Epstein-Barr Virus viral-capsid antigen

EH - Endolymphatic Hydrops. This is a disorder of the vestibular system.

EJC - European Journal of Cancer

ELS - Endolinphatic Shunt

ELST - Endolinphatic Sac Tumor 

EMDR - Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing

ENS  - Empty Nose Syndrome. 

ENT - Ear-Nose-Throat. See also "ORL: cosa significa?"

ERA - Electrical Response Audiometry 

ERO - Evoked Response Olfactometry 

ESS - Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. See also videoendoscopy sinus surgery.

ETD - Eustachian Tube Dysfunction

ETF  - Eustachian Tube Function. 

ETS - Environmental Tobacco Smoke 

ETT - Endotracheal Tube

EUA - Exam Under Anesthesia

EVA - Enlarged Vestibular Acqueduct

ex aq - (latin: ex aqua) - In water


FAO  - Far Advanced Otosclerosis

FB - Foreing Body

FEES - Flexible [or Fiberoptic] Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing

FESS - Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. 

FFF - Fibula Free Flap

FFL - Flexible Fiberoptic Laryngoscopy

FFT  - Fast Fourier Transform

F/H - Family History

FIT - Food Intolerance Test.  

FKT - PhysioKinesiTherapy

FMEO - Fungal Malignant External Otitis

fMRI - Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

FMT - Floating Mass Transducer. It 'a component of the Vibrant Soundbridge, a semi-implantable prosthesis.

FMTE - Full Mouth Tooth Extraction

FNA - Fine Needle Aspiration

FNAB - Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy.  See also biopsy.

FOM - Floor Of Mouth

FSF - Frontal Sinus Fracture

FT3 - Free Triijodothyronine

FT4 - Free Thyroxine

FTC - Federal Trade Commission (USA)

FU  - Follow Up

Fx - Fracture

telephonic number carlo govoni ent surgeon



GCS - Glasgow Coma Scale

GERD - Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

GPR  - Good Partial Remission

Gy - Gray. Gray is the standard unit of absorbed inonizing-radiation dose.  See also cGy - centigray.


HA - Hearing Aids
HA - Headache. In italian language cefalea

HAE - Hearing Aid Evaluation

H2S - Idrogen sulphide

Hb - Haemoglobin concentration

HBO (or hbo) - Hyperbaric Oxigen

HBV -  Hepatitis B Virus 

HCP - Human Connectome Project

HCV - Hepatitis C Virus 

HD  - High Dose

H&N  - Head and Neck.

HHIE - Hearing Handicap Inventary for the Ealdery. 

HHT - Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus  

HL - Hearing Loss

HNC - Head and Neck Cancer

HNS - Head and Neck Surgery

HNSCCs - Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

HP - Hearing Preservation
HP - Hypopharinx 

HPV - Human Papilloma Virus

HR  - High Risk 

HST - Head Shaking Test.

HSV - Herpes Simplex Virus

HTN - Hypertension

Hx  - Medical History

Hz - Hertz - Hertz is the unit of frequency. The unit is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. 

HZV - Herpes Zoster Virus


I&D - Incision and Drainage

IAC - Internal Auditory Canal

IC  - Infiltrating Carcinoma
 - Infusion Chemotherapy

ICA  - Internal Carotid Arthery  

ICF - Intercellular Fluid

ICHD-3  - International Classification of Headaches Disorders, 3td Edition

ICNIRP - International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 

ICP - Intracranial Pressure

If - Intermittent fasting. or  If diet. 

IFN  -  Interferon

IFOS  -  International Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societes. It was founded during the Tokyo World Congress of Otolarygology in 1965.

Igf-1  - Insulin-like growth factor. 

IGR - Institute Gustave Roussy - France. See

IHS - International Headache Society

IIC - Invisible in canal hearing aids 

IL - Interleukin

IM - Intramuscolar

IMRT - Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

INR - International Normalized Ratio

ISSNHL - Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. See Sudden Deafness

ITE - In-the-ear. 

IV  - Intravenous  or  Into a Vein


JLO  - The Journal of Laryngology & Otology

JNA - Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma

JNS  - Journal of Neurosurgery. Official Journal of the aans since 1944.


K - Carcinoma

KHz - Kilohertz, or 1000 Hz. 


LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

LAUP - Laser Assisted Uvolopalatopharyngoplasty

LB  -  Large Base.

LDL - Loudness Disconfort Level

LEMG - Laryngeal Electromyography

LES - Lower Esophageal Sphincter

LF - Laser Fulguration

LMA - Laryngeal Mask Airway

LMM  - Lentigo Maligna Melanoma
LMP - Low Malignant Potential 

LN - Lymph Node (see also LYM)

LND - Lymph Node Dissection

LP - Lumbar Puncture

LPR - Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

LTB (or Ltb) - Laryngotracheobronchitis

LTR - Laryngotracheal Reconstruction

LYM -  Lymph node (see also LN)


MAD - Mandibular Advanced Deviced

MALT - Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue

MAR - Bone Marrow

MBS - Modified Barium Swallow

MCF - Middle Cranial Fossa

MD- Ménière's Disease 
MD - Moderately Differentiated

MDR - Multi Drug Resistant

MED - Medial

MEE - Middle Ear Effusion
MEE - Middle Ear Exploration 

MEN - Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

MEO - Malignant External Otitis

METS  (or Mets) - Metastases (see also MTS)

MI - Myocardial Infarction

MID - Maximal Interincisal Distance

MIO - Minimum Identifiable Odour

MML  - Minimum Masking Level. MML is expressed in dB sensation level (SL). 

MMF - Maxillomandibular Fixation

MPL - Myringoplasty.

MRI  - Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRND - Modified Radical Neck Dissection

MRSA - Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus

MS - Multiple Sclerosis

MSA - Multi System Atrophy

MSDL - Microsuspension Direct Laryngoscopy

MSL - Multiple Symmetric Lipomatosis

MSLT - Multiple Sleep Latency Test

MST - Maximal Stimulation Test

MTC - Medullary Thyroid Cancer

MTS or Mts - Metastases

MTX - Methotrexate

MxT - Myringotomy and Tubes


NA - Acoustic Neuroma 

NAFLD - Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

NARES - NonAllergic Rhinitis with Eosinophila. 

NASH - Non Alcoholic Steato-Hepatitis

NAW - Nasoantral Window

NBHS - Newborn Hearing Screen

NCI - National Cancer Institute. See also

ND - Neck Dissection

NDA - New Drug Application

NDPH - New Daily Persistent Headache 

NET - Nerve Excitability Test

NF (or nf) - Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis is an important autosomal dominant disorder.

NHL - Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

NHT - Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy

NIHL - Noise Induced Hearing Loss

NK - Natural Killer

NMR - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

NMSC - Non Melanoma Skin Cancer

NOE - Naso-Orbito-Ethmoid

NOS - Not Otherwise Specified

NP - Nasopharynx

NPC  - Naso Pharyngeal Carcinoma

NRT - Neural Response Telemetry

NSAID - Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

NSI - Nasal Saline Irrigation

NSR - No Sign of Recurrence
NSR - Not-Significant Result 
NSR - Normal Sinus Rhythm

NV o N/V - Nausea and Vomit


O - Blood group O

OAE - Oto Acoustic Emissions

OC - Oral Cavity

OCR - Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

OD  - Over Dose

OE - Otitis Externa

OHNS  - Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeon 

OKC - Odontogenic Keratocysts

OKN - Optokinetic Nystagmus

OM - Otitis Media

OM - Odourized Markers 

OMC - Osteomeatal Complex

OME - otitis media with effusion. 

OMS - see WHO 

ONB  - Olfactory Neuro Blastoma

OP - Oropharynx
OP - Out Patient  

OPMS - Oropharyngeal Motility Study

OR - Operating Room 

ORIF - Open Reduction Internal Fixation

ORL -  Otolaryngology or OtoRhinoLaryngology

ORL-HNS - OtoRhinoLaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

OSA - Obstructive Sleep Apnea

OSAS - Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome 

OSCC - Oropharingeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

OSR - Open SeptoRhinoplasty

OTOHNS - Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

OW - Oval Window


p-ANCA - perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies

PAP - Positive Airway Pressure

PD - Progressive Disease

PDR - Physician's Desk Reference

PDT (or pdt) - Photodynamic Therapy

PEG - Percutaneos Endoscopy Gastrostomy

PET   - Positron Emission Tomography 
PET - Pressure Equalizing Tube 

PH  (or Ph) - Past History 

PICA  - Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery. Is the most important branch of the vertebral artery.

PM - Pacemaker

PNS  - Peripheral Nervous System

PORP - Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis

PPI - Proton Pump Inhibitor.

PR - Partial Remission
PR - Partial Responce 

PRIST - Paper Radioimmunosorbent Test 

PRITS - Partial Resection Of Inferior Turbinates

PSCT - Palliative Supportive Care Team

PSG - Polisomnogram

PSS - Performance Status Scale

PT - Prothrombin Time

PTT -  Partial Thromboplastin Time

PTA - Peritonsillar Abscess
PTA - Pure Tone Audiometry
PTA  - Pure Tone Average.

PTH - Parathyroid Hormone

PTS  - Permanent Threshold Shift  


QALY - Quality Adjusted Life Year

q. d. - (latin: quaque die) - Every day

QOL  - Quality Of Life



RADPLAT - Radiation plus Cisplatin

RAST - Radioallergosorbent Test

RBC - Red Blood Cell

RDI - Respiratory Disordes Index (or Respiratory Disturbance Index)

RF - Radiofrequency

RFA - Radiofrequency Ablation

RFFF - Radial Forearm Free Flap

RFITT  - Radio Frequency Induced Thermotherapy. See also CelonLab ENT.

RFVTR - Radio Frequency Volumetric Tissue Reduction

RI - Residual Inhibition

RIT - Radio Immuno Therapy

RMF - Resonance Magnetic Functional  (another acronym: fMRI)

RMN - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

RMT - Retromolar Trigone

RNA - Ribonucleic Acid

RND - Radical Neck Dissection

ROT - Reality Orentation Therapy

RRP - Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

RS - [neuroscience]  Resting State

RT - Radio Therapy

RW - Round Window

Rx  - Prescription

RXT  - Radiation X-ray Therapy


SAE - Serius Adverse Event

SC - Subcutaneus

SCC - Short Course Chemotherapy
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Strategic Cell Controller 

SCM - Sternocleidomastoid

SDT - Speech Discrimination Threshold

SEH - Secondary Endolynphatic Hydrops

SET - Skin Endpoint Titration

SG or SGC - Salivar Gland Carcinoma

SGOT - Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase

SGPT - Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase

SGS - Subglottic Stenosis

SH - Social History

SIDS  - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome 

SL - Sensation Level. 

SLE - System Lupus Erythematosus

SMAS - Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System

SMG (or smg) - SubMandibular Gland

SNHL  - Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

SOB - Short Of Breath

SPA - Subperiosteal Abscess

SPF - Sun Protection Factor. See also Fattore di Protezione Solare

SRT  -  Speech Reception Threshold

SSD - Single Sided Deafness 

SSNHL - Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

STSG - Split Thickness Skin Graft

SVW  - Vidal - Wright syndrome



T&A  (or  T+A)  - Tonsllectomy and Adenoidectomy
TACs - Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias
TBI - Total Body Irradiation
TBI - Traumatic Brain Injury
TBNA - Transbronchial Needle Aspiration
TC - Thyroid Cancer
TCA - Trichloroacetic acid
TCB - Thrombocytopenia
TCM - Traditional Chinese Medicine.
TEE -   TransEsophageal Echo.
TENS - Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator. 
TEOAE - Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions 
TEP - Tracheoesophageal Puncture
TES - Transoral Endoscopic Surgery

TGF - Tumor Growth Factor

THI - Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (Newman et al., 1996). See also article Tinnitus Retrainig Therapy 

THoSC - Tinnitus Holistic Simplified Classification

Tinnitus: causes and treatment at Columbus Clinic Center in Milan

TI - Tumor Inducing

TIA - Transient Ischaemic Attack 

TL - Total Laryngectomy
TL  (or TLA)- Translabyrintine Approach 
TLMS - Transoral Laser Microsurgery
TM - Tympanic Membrane
TM - Tympanomastoidectomy
TMD  - Temporomandibular joint disorders
TMS - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
TNM - Tumor - Nodes - Metastasis. 
TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

TOB  -Test Of Balance. See Computerized Dinamic Posturography
TORP - Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis
TORS - Transoral Robotic Surgery
TPL - Tympanoplasty
TPL CWD - Tympanoplasty Canal-Wall Down
TPL CWU - Tympanoplasty Canal-Wall Up
TPN - Total Parenteral Nutrition

TRT - Tinnitus Retrainig Therapy -   See also Tinnitus treatment at the Columbus Clinic Center in Milan

TSH - Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

TT - Total Tyroidectomy

TTH  - Tension-type Headaches

TTND - Time To Non-detectable

TTS - Temporary Threshold Shift 

TV - Tumor Volume

TVC - True Vocal Cord

TZ - Transition Zone



UARS  - Upper Airways Resistence Syndrome

UBT - Urea Breath Test

UES - Upper Esophageal Sphincter

UHL  - Unilateral Hearing Loss

ULN - Upper Limits of Normal

UPPP - Uvulo Palato Pharingo Plasty

UPF - Ultraviolet Protection Factor - Fattore di protezione dai raggi ultravioletti

URI  or  URTI  - Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

U.S.P. - United States Pharmacopoeia

UVH - Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction.

UVR - Ultra Violet Radiation


VBI - Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency

VC - Vocal Cords

VII - Facial Nerve. The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve.

VHL - von Hippel Lindau. See Syndrome von Hippel Lindau

VMA - Vanillyl Mandelic Acid

VOR - Vestibulo Ocular Reflex.  

VORP - Vibrating Ossicular Prosthesis. This is the implantable component of the Vibrant Soundbridge System.

VRA - Visual Response Audiometry

VS - Vestibular Schwannoma

VSR -  Vestibulo Spinal Reflex.

VZV - Varicella Zoster Virus


WD - Well Differentiated

WHO - World Health Organization 

WM - Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

WTHD - Wish To Hasten Death


XR - X-Ray
XR  - Estremely Rare 

XRT - X-Ray Therapy. Radiotherapy


YAG Lasers - Lasers based on YAG. YAG = Yttrium Aluminium Garnet.

YOB - Year Of Birth


ZMC - Zygomaticomaxillary Complex



where carlo govoni expert otorhinolaryngologist italy tinnitus
In all centers where I carry out medical examinations
it is possible to pay in euros by cash or by debit card.



See also:
- Hesperia Hospital, Modena 

- Ambulatory Care and Clinic Center "Columbus", 48, Buonarroti street, Milan 



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biopsia-prelievoLa biopsia o prelievo bioptico è una tecnica semplice che viene utilizzata sia in ambulatorio che in corso d'intervento. Le finalità sono diverse. Biopsia ambulatoriale.Lo scopo della biopsia ambulatoriale è quello di togliere un pezzetto di tessuto e farlo analizzare allo scopo di capire la natura della malattia. Nell'ambito della testa e del collo le biopsie ambulatoriali si eseguono su ogni parte della pelle della testa...
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